Gold nanoparticles conjugated with DNA aptamer for photoacoustic detection of human matrix metalloproteinase-9
a Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
b School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta. GA 30332, USA
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays major roles in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and membrane protein cleavage, suggesting a high correlation with cancer cell invasion and tumor metastasis. Here, we present a contrast agent based on a DNA aptamer that can selectively target human MMP-9 in the tumor microenvi-ronment (TME) with high afﬁnity and sensitivity. Surface modiﬁcation of plasmonic gold nanospheres with the MMP-9 aptamer and its complementary sequences allows the nanospheres to aggregate in the presence of human MMP-9 through DNA displacement and hybridization. Aggregation of gold nanospheres enhances the optical absorption in the ﬁrst near-infrared window (NIR-I) due to the plasmon coupling effect, thereby allowing us to detect the aggregated gold nanospheres within the TME via ultrasound-guided photoacoustic (US/PA) imaging. Selective and sensitive detection of human MMP-9 via US/PA imaging is demonstrated in solution of nanosensors with the pre-treatment of human MMP-9, in vitro in cell culture, and in vivo in a xenograft murine model of human breast cancer.
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