Real-time, volumetric imaging of radiation dose delivery deep into the liver during cancer treatment
Ionizing radiation acoustic imaging (iRAI) allows online monitoring of radiation’s interactions with tissues during radiation therapy, providing real-time, adaptive feedback for cancer treatments. We describe an iRAI volumetric imaging system that enables mapping of the three-dimensional (3D) radiation dose distribution in a complex clinical radiotherapy treatment. The method relies on a two-dimensional matrix array transducer and a matching multi-channel preamplifier board. The feasibility of imaging temporal 3D dose accumulation was first validated in a tissue-mimicking phantom. Next, semiquantitative iRAI relative dose measurements were verified in vivo in a rabbit model. Finally, real-time visualization of the 3D radiation dose delivered to a patient with liver metastases was accomplished with a clinical linear accelerator. These studies demonstrate the potential of iRAI to monitor and quantify the 3D radiation dose deposition during treatment, potentially improving radiotherapy treatment efficacy using real-time adaptive treatment.